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Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Diagnosis


The human body is like a fortress, and the immune system is an army that protects the fortress from invaders such as bacteria and viruses. However, failing to identify the enemy, the army launches an attack on the fortress. Therefore, the human body develops many diseases such as: Lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis etc. Such diseases are called autoimmune diseases. Patients with autoimmune diseases experience pain, Malaisedizziness, rash, depressionand other symptoms.

This blog discusses autoimmune diseases, their types, causes, and various treatment options.

What is autoimmune disease

The function of the immune system is to protect the body from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. It does so by sending out antibodies to fight foreign substances. However, when the immune system recognizes the body’s tissues as invaders, it sends autoantibodies to attack healthy tissues, leaving the body vulnerable to inflammation and causing autoimmune diseases. target one organ, whereas other autoimmune diseases may target the whole body.

Researchers have found over 100 autoimmune diseases. Common ones include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Each illness has its own symptoms, but common symptoms include pain, fatigue, rashes, nausea, headachesuch as dizziness.

What types of autoimmune diseases are there?

There are over 100 autoimmune diseases, but below are some of the more common ones.

  • type 1 Diabetes mellitus: The pancreas produces insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. but, type 1 diabetes The patient’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): The immune system attacks the joints, causing redness, warmth, pain and stiffness. An individual can develop RA as early as he is 30 years old or sooner.
  • Psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis: Skin cells constantly grow and shed when they don’t need to. However, psoriasis sufferers have skin cells that grow rapidly, leading to buildup, inflammation, red patches, and plaque. Nearly 30% of individuals with this disorder experience swelling, stiffness, and joint pain. and as a result, psoriatic arthritis.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: The immune system damages the protective layer of nerve cells in the central nervous system known as the myelin sheath, reducing the transmission of messages between the brain, spinal cord, and the rest of the body. Numbness, weakness, instability, and problems with walking. Some patients experience varying levels of disease progression. Research studies have shown that nearly 50% of people with MS will need a walking aid within 15 years of his diagnosis.
  • inflammatory bowel disease: This disease causes inflammation in the lining of the intestinal wall.
  • Addison’s disease: The adrenal glands produce cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone hormones. However, Addison’s disease affects the adrenal glands, causing a deficiency of aldosterone and decreased sodium and increased potassium in the bloodstream. Weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood sugar are some of the symptoms of Addison’s disease. .
  • Basedow’s disease It affects the thyroid gland in the neck and increases hormone production. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing hormones that control metabolism. However, hormone overproduction causes nervousness, increased heart rate, heat tolerance, and severe weight loss.
  • Sjögren’s syndrome It attacks the glands that moisten the eyes and mouth.thirst and Dry eye It is a typical symptom of this disease. However, for some patients, joints and skin are also affected.
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis: Deficiency of thyroid hormones in patients with this disorder can lead to weight gain, increased sensitivity to cold, fatigue, and extreme cold. hair lossand goiter.
  • myasthenia gravis It damages nerve impulses that control muscles. Impaired nerve-to-muscle transmission leads to muscle weakness.
  • autoimmunity vasculitis: Arteries and veins narrow when the immune system attacks the blood vessels. This leads to decreased blood flow.
  • Pernicious anemia: In this condition, patients develop a protein deficiency caused by stomach lining cells. These proteins are essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 from food. A deficiency of this vitamin results in anemia.
  • Celiac disease: celiac disease Patients cannot handle gluten in wheat, rye, and grain products. The small intestine receives gluten. The immune system attacks it, causing inflammation. A 2015 study showed that about 1% of people in the United States have celiac disease.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): In the 1800s, skin disease caused by rough skin. Today, however, systemic forms affect several organs and parts of the body, including joints, kidneys, brain, and heart.SLE symptoms include joint pain, fatigue, and rashes.
  • autoimmunity hepatitis: When the immune system attacks liver cells, it causes liver inflammation. if treatment fails, liver transplant may be an option.
  • Autoimmune myositis: Muscle inflammation due to an attack from the immune system is called autoimmunity Myositis. polymyositisdermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis are types of autoimmune myositis.

What are the symptoms of autoimmune disease?

There are many different types of autoimmune diseases, but most have common symptoms such as:

  • tired
  • joint pain and inflammation
  • skin problems
  • Abdominal and digestive problems pain
  • repetition heat
  • gland inflammation
  • skin rash
  • difficult to concentrate

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis include:

  • fatigue, exhaustion, lack of motivation
  • yellowing of the skin
  • pain in the joints and upper abdomen
  • rash, Acneand other skin conditions
  • Anorexia
  • dark urine and light-colored stools
  • nausea and vomiting

Patients with celiac disease experience the following symptoms:

  • diarrhea
  • tired
  • nausea and vomiting
  • Extreme pain in joints, bones, stomach
  • excess gas

If a person has Crohn’s disease, the following symptoms may appear:

  • low red blood cell count
  • stomach cramps and pain
  • extreme weight loss
  • diarrhea
  • heat
  • nausea
  • Anorexia
  • joint and eye pain
  • red bumpy skin rash

Symptoms of Graves’ disease include:

  • arrhythmia
  • anxiety
  • weight loss
  • extreme heat
  • increased sweating
  • diarrhea
  • fatigue and weakness
  • hand tremors and tremors
  • Sleeping disorder

Symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis include:

  • unexpected fatigue
  • increased weight gain
  • increased coldness
  • muscle spasms
  • constipation
  • stiff joints
  • hair loss
  • heavy or irregular menstrual cycles
  • slow heartbeat
  • hives
  • infertility

Patients with multiple sclerosis experience:

  • tired
  • Weakness, numbness, tingling
  • A sudden electric shock sensation in the limbs and back
  • dizzy
  • vision problem
  • Difficult to walk

Symptoms of pernicious anemia are:

  • pale skin
  • depression
  • Difficult to walk
  • Cold limbs, tingling, numbness
  • red swollen tongue
  • cognitive impairment
  • diarrheabloating, heartburn

Rheumatoid arthritis presents with symptoms such as:

  • Malaise
  • muscle and joint pain
  • slight fever
  • weight loss

Symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome include:

  • Dry lips, skin, nasal passages, throat, and vagina
  • tired
  • inflammation of the salivary glands
  • Dysphagia
  • changes in taste and smell
  • cognitive impairment
  • headache and stomachache
  • Increased dental activity
  • eye infections

Symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus are:

  • Malaise
  • heat
  • increased hair loss
  • Butterfly-shaped rash on cheeks, nose, and eyelids
  • lung and kidney problems
  • Inflammation and pain in joints and muscles
  • dry mouthdry eyes, painful stomatitis
  • blood clot

Below are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

  • Frequent urination
  • excessive thirst
  • blurry vision
  • sudden unexplained weight loss
  • increased hunger
  • Malaise
  • Numbness or tingling in hands and feet
  • dry skin
  • sores
  • increase in infections

Patients with autoimmune hepatitis experience the following symptoms:

  • Malaise
  • abdominal discomfort
  • enlarged liver and jaundice
  • skin rash
  • abnormal blood vessels
  • lowest menstruation
  • joint pain

When to Seek Medical Assistance?

If a person is experiencing any of the above symptoms, or is already experiencing severe or new signs of an autoimmune disease, seek medical help immediately.

What Causes Autoimmune Diseases?

The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown. However, certain risk factors contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, including:

  • medicine: certain drugs blood pressurestatins, and antibiotics contribute to the development of autoimmune disease
  • Family history of autoimmune disease
  • smoking
  • exposure to toxins
  • Pre-existing autoimmune disease
  • obesity
  • Infection
  • Women are more likely to

How are autoimmune diseases diagnosed?

After taking a thorough look at your symptoms and medical history, your healthcare provider will do blood tests and the following tests:

Certain autoimmune conditions with certain blood markers may help doctors prove you have an autoimmune disease.

What are the different treatment options for autoimmune diseases?

There is no cure for autoimmune disease. However, a combination of different treatments can lessen the effects of symptoms. Your doctor will prescribe the following medicines:

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen
  • Immunosuppressant
  • pain reliever
  • anti-inflammatory drug
  • insulin injection
  • Plasmapheresis
  • corticosteroid
  • rash cream
  • intravenous immunoglobulin

A balanced diet, regular exercise, and lifestyle changes can also help relieve symptoms.

What are the complications of autoimmune disease?

Autoimmune diseases have several complications that can lead to serious health complications. Complications depend on the condition. However, some of the more common complications are:

  • Heart disease: Several conditions affect the heart, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Mood disorders: Chronic and constant pain and fatigue, common symptoms of many autoimmune diseases, can leave patients feeling depressed and anxious.
  • Neuropathy: Rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and other autoimmune diseases can cause nerve damage, causing numbness and weakness in the arms and legs.
  • deep vein thrombosis: Autoimmune diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease put patients at an increased risk of developing blood clots. Such blood clots can travel to the lungs and cause blockages called occlusions. pulmonary embolism.
  • Organ damage: Autoimmune diseases that affect specific organs can cause significant damage leading to organ failure if left untreated.


Autoimmune diseases may be incurable, but they can be managed with treatment and lifestyle changes. Therefore, getting treatment early can help prolong life and improve quality of life.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Are autoimmune diseases hereditary?

Some autoimmune diseases are hereditary.

Will autoimmune diseases go away?

Unfortunately, autoimmune diseases don’t go away. Most of these diseases are chronic.

Are autoimmune diseases preventable?

Autoimmune diseases cannot be prevented. However, some doctors find it helpful to do the following:

  • Exercise regularly and stay active
  • avoid smoking
  • including healthy eating
  • avoid processed foods Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Diagnosis

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