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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Cancer comes in many forms, each affecting different parts of the body. One such cancer is acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Spongy tissue that produces blood cells and is inside bones. It primarily affects a group of bone marrow cells that are involved in the development of different types of mature blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. To do.

This blog explains the definition of acute myeloid disease leukemiaits symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)?

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant tumor of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue within bones that is responsible for producing blood cells.

The word “acute” in acute myeloid leukemia refers to the ability of the disease to progress rapidly. This condition usually affects myeloid cells, a subset of white blood cells that mature into other forms of blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

What are the symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?

Common signs and symptoms of acute myeloid leukemia can resemble the flu and other common illnesses in the early stages.

Some of the symptoms are:

  • heat
  • bone pain
  • Malaise and lethargic
  • difficulty breathing
  • pale skin
  • frequent illness or infection
  • bruising easily
  • unusual bleeding of the gums or nose
  • inflammation of the gums
  • Increased sweating, especially at night
  • unexplained unintended weight loss
  • Women may experience heavier than normal periods

What causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?

Acute myeloid leukemia develops when changes (mutations) occur in the DNA or genetic structure of bone marrow cells. This DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do. It tells cells to develop at a certain rate and die at a certain time. Acute myeloid leukemia mutations tell myeloid cells to continue to grow and develop. Blood cell production goes out of control, producing immature white blood cells known as myeloblasts. These abnormal cells are unable to function normally, so they can accumulate and choke healthy cells.

What are the risk factors leading to acute myeloid leukemia?

Risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include:

  1. aging: Aging increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia. People over the age of 65 are more susceptible to acute myeloid leukemia.
  2. radioactive contamination: The development of AML is more likely in people exposed to very high doses of radiation, such as those who survived nuclear reactor accidents.
  3. sex: Acute myeloid leukemia is more common in men than in women.
  4. Previous cancer treatment: The risk of AML is increased in people who have received certain forms of radiation or radiation. chemical treatment for cancer treatment.
  5. Blood disorders: AML is more likely to develop in people who have previously had a blood disorder such as myelodysplasia. myelofibrosispolycythemia vera, or thrombocythemia.
  6. Genetic condition: AML risk is heightened by several genetic disorders, including Down syndrome
  7. Smoking increases the chance of getting this cancer because tobacco smoke contains harmful elements.
  8. Exposure to some chemicals, such as benzene, has been associated with an increased risk of AML.

People who have never been exposed to these risk factors can also develop this condition.

How is acute myeloid leukemia diagnosed?

If you have symptoms or signs of acute myeloid leukemia, your doctor may advise you to undergo diagnostic procedures such as:

  1. Blood test: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia usually have too many white blood cells and not enough red blood cells and platelets. However, in some cases, patients may be deficient in white blood cells. Another sign of acute myeloid leukemia is the presence of blast cells in the blood, usually in the bone marrow.
  2. Bone marrow examination: Leukemia can be detected by blood tests, but a bone marrow examination is usually required to confirm the diagnosis.
  3. Spinal tap (spinal tap): It may be necessary to remove fluid from around the spinal cord to look for leukemic cells. A doctor can remove this fluid by inserting a small needle into the spinal canal in your lower back.
  4. In the laboratory, doctors will test the leukemic cells to better understand which genetic mutations are present. This information may guide prognosis and treatment options.

What are the treatment options for acute myeloid leukemia?

Physicians determine treatment options and prognosis based on AML subtype and other data. Unlike other cancers, acute myeloid leukemia has no stages and numbers are used to indicate the prognosis and whether the disease is widespread.

Instead, the following factors determine disease severity:

  1. AML subtype
  2. your age
  3. your general well-being

Based on the above factors, your doctor will decide on a treatment plan. Two common stages of treatment are:

  1. Induction therapy: The initial stage of treatment is to eradicate leukemic cells from the blood and bone marrow. However, induction therapy often leaves some leukemic cells behind, requiring additional treatment to prevent the disease from recurring.
  2. Consolidation therapy: Also known as postremission therapy or maintenance therapy, this phase of treatment aims to eradicate any remaining leukemia cells. It is considered essential to reduce the chance of recurrence.

During these stages, the following treatments are used:

  1. chemical treatment: Chemotherapy is the most common type of induction therapy, although it can also be used for consolidation therapy. Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells in the body.
  2. Targeted therapy: Targeted drug therapy focuses on specific defects in cancer cells. This treatment can kill cancer cells by blocking these abnormalities. We will look at your leukemia cells to determine if targeted therapy might benefit you. Targeted therapy can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy during the induction and consolidation phases.
  3. Bone marrow transplantation: For consolidation therapy, Bone marrow transplantation, commonly known as stem cell transplantation. In this process, diseased bone marrow is replaced with leukemia-free stem cells that grow into healthy bone marrow.

receiving high-dose chemotherapy, radiotherapy Before a bone marrow transplant to kill the bone marrow that causes leukemia. Your healthcare provider will then inject you with stem cells from a matched donor (allograft). You can also receive your own stem cells during a transplant (autologous transplant) if you were previously in remission and have harvested and stored healthy stem cells for future transplants.


How to identify AML subtypes?

When your doctor finds out you have AML, he will prescribe more tests to determine the extent of the malignancy and classify it into a more precise subtype of AML.

Can alternative medicine cure AML?

Alternative medicine, such as yoga, acupuncture, and tai chi, cannot cure AML, but may help manage symptoms.

What are other names for AML?

Acute myeloid leukemia is also called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and acute granulocytic leukemia.

https://healthlibrary.askapollo.com/acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-symptoms-causes-and-treatment/ Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

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