Types, causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention


Encephalopathy is usually confused with encephalitis because both sounds are heard. But they are different. Encephalitis is a condition in which the brain becomes inflamed. Encephalopathies, on the other hand, are mental conditions resulting from various brain-related problems.However, the cause of encephalopathy is encephalitisIt is very important to know this difference. This blog is a comprehensive guide to encephalopathy, its types, causes, and available treatment options.

What is Encephalopathy?

Encephalopathy means an injury or disease that affects the brain. Changes in brain function or physical changes that can affect the brain can cause encephalopathy.

Such changes can lead to changes in mental state, confusion, or behavior. A series of failures with different causes. This serious condition can cause temporary or permanent brain damage if not properly treated.

What are the different types of encephalopathy and what causes them?

Encephalopathy can be reversible and irreversible. Recoverable causes are:

  • hepatic encephalopathy: If the liver can’t get rid of toxins in the body, it will accumulate and the brain will not function properly.patient liver cirrhosis Or other chronic liver disease or people taking too much acetaminophen or other medications may experience it.
  • Wernicke encephalopathy: A type of encephalopathy caused by excessive alcohol consumption. It can cause brain damage and memory-related problems.
  • Hashimoto encephalopathy: This type of encephalopathy is Hashimoto’s disease, Thyroid disorderThe exact cause is unknown, but the immune system may attack the brain and alter its function.
  • Metabolic encephalopathy: It is caused by other health conditions, including: Diabetesliver disease, and kidney or heart failure, impairs the brain’s ability to function. For example, diabetics may experience confusion. coma If your blood sugar is too high.
  • Infectious encephalopathy: Infections in different parts of the body. urinary tract infection, or the brain, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause encephalopathy. again, sepsisa severe physical reaction to infection.
  • encephalopathy due to brain tumor: Tumor growth in the brain is another cause.
  • Encephalopathy due to exposure to toxins: Long-term use of toxins such as solvents, drugs, radiation, paints, industrial chemicals, and certain metals can cause encephalopathy.
  • Encephalopathy due to epilepsy seizure: It can occur when epileptic episodes recur in the brain without physically manifesting as symptoms.
  • infectious encephalopathy It is caused by a rare group of conditions known as prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Prion diseases are associated with mutations in proteins called prions.

Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that over time can damage the brain and worsen or worsen brain function. Doctors find small holes in the brain that give it a spongy appearance. Below are examples of prion diseases that can lead to infectious encephalopathy.

  • fatal familial insomnia
  • kuru
  • chronic wasting disease
  • Creutzfeldt Jacob

There are several types of irreversible encephalopathy, including:

  • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: Recurrent head injuries cause this type of encephalopathy. High-impact sports such as football and boxing can cause this.
  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: Occurs when the brain does not get enough oxygen. It causes brain damage.Ah cardiac arrestmay be due to carbon monoxide poisoning, drug overdose, or drowning.

What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?

Some common symptoms are:

  • confusion
  • amnesia
  • behavior change
  • inability to concentrate or think clearly

Some people have problems such as:

  • difficult to speak
  • difficulty swallowing
  • sleepiness
  • seizure
  • Weakness or uncontrolled spasms
  • uncontrolled eye movements
  • trembling

When do you want to see a doctor?

call your healthcare provider Or visit the emergency department if the person is showing symptoms of encephalopathy.

What are the methods of diagnosing encephalopathy?

The health care provider will do a physical examination and ask about the person’s medical history, especially any drugs they are taking. They may also prescribe other tests, such as:

  • urine and blood tests
  • Examination of spinal fluid
  • Tests of concentration, memory and other mental abilities
  • EEG to assess electrical activity in the brain
  • computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),

What are the treatment options for people with encephalopathy?

The treatment a patient needs depends on the cause of the encephalopathy. Your healthcare provider may suggest:

  • medicine to stop seizures
  • diet supplement
  • Drugs that lower ammonia levels
  • change the patient’s diet
  • Stopping an existing drug the patient is taking
  • Patients may need if liver or kidney problems are the underlying cause of the condition dialysis Or organ transplant.

Are there preventative measures for encephalopathy?

Some types of encephalopathy are preventable, but others are not. Hereditary and hereditary cannot be prevented. However, some types, such as hepatic encephalopathy, may be preventable through lifestyle adjustments.

The following steps can help you avoid the risk of developing encephalopathy.

  • take appropriate precautions to avoid head injuries
  • avoid excessive alcohol consumption
  • Minimize exposure to toxins
  • Maintain a healthy diet and maintain an optimal weight
  • Avoid drugs that are harmful to the nervous system
  • Regular health checkup


Treatment of encephalopathy depends mainly on the cause and whether it is reversible or irreversible. Physical damage to the brain caused by head trauma, poisoning, cardiac arrest, or oxygen deprivation is usually irreversible. In other words, the mental state will never return to its original state. However, most cases are cured with timely medical intervention and treatment. Always look for signs and see a doctor as soon as symptoms are discovered.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Is malnutrition the cause of encephalopathy?

yes. Lack of adequate nutrition can lead to encephalopathy.

Is encephalopathy fatal?

Certain encephalopathies cause irreversible and permanent damage to the brain and can be fatal.

Does encephalopathy cause personality changes?

yes. Encephalopathy can cause personality changes in patients.

https://healthlibrary.askapollo.com/encephalopathy-types-causes-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment-prevention/ Types, causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

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