Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a group of blood cancers that affect the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system contains nodes, organs, and blood vessels throughout the body and helps the body’s immune system fight infections.
It originates from lymphocytes (white blood cells in the lymph nodes), swollen lymph nodes and lumps all over the body. With timely treatment, a full recovery is possible.
This blog discusses Hodgkin’s lymphoma, its types, symptoms, causes, and various treatments.
What is Hodgkin Lymphoma?
Everyone has a lymphatic system. This is a network of nodes connected via blood vessels that drain fluid and waste products from the body. These nodes also act as filters for foreign substances and cells. In addition, it is involved in the production of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, which help protect you from infection by bacteria, viruses and fungi. may notice. This is a normal reaction to infection.
Lymphoma is a condition in which cells in lymph nodes or lymphocytes begin to grow rapidly and in a controllable manner. These cancer cells invade healthy tissue in other parts of the body. As the disease progresses, your body has a harder time fighting infections.
What are the types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma?
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are two types of Hodgkin lymphoma. These are identified based on samples of enlarged lymphoid tissue, the cell types involved, and their behavior.
classic Hodgkin lymphoma
It is the most common form of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A specialist will analyze the lymph nodes, surrounding tissue, and blood cells to identify signs of Reed-Sternberg cells. Furthermore, he is classified into four subtypes as follows:
- Tuberous Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma: It originates in lymph nodes in the chest and neck. It is most commonly seen in teenagers and young adults. He accounts for nearly 70% of classic Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
- Mixed cell Hodgkin lymphoma: It is the second most common type, found primarily in HIV patients. Occurs in the lymph nodes of the upper body.
- Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma: Rare and early detection is possible. It is more common in men than women.
- Lymphocyte depleting Hodgkin lymphoma: It is most commonly found in the lymph nodes of the abdomen, spleen, liver, and bone marrow. This rare form is diagnosed at an advanced stage among the elderly, HIV Patience.
Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma (NLPHL)
This type of Hodgkin lymphoma is rarer than the classic type. Men are more susceptible to this form than women. Experts analyze lymph nodes, surrounding tissue, and blood tissue for abnormal cells known as popcorn cells. They are big and look like popcorn. These cells are a variant of the Reed-Sternberg cells found in classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
What Causes Hodgkin Lymphoma?
Health care providers have identified certain risk factors that make you more likely to develop the disease. Risk factors include:
- People aged 20-40 to over 60 are at higher risk
- men are at higher risk than women
- Family history of Hodgkin lymphoma
- Organ transplant recipients taking anti-rejection drugs
- Certain viruses, such as HIV, AIDSand Epstein Barr
What are the symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma?
Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin is the first common symptom of the disease.
- persistent fatigue
- incessant heat and cough
- night sweats
- unintentional weight loss
- severe itching
- Lymph nodes hurt after drinking alcohol
- breathing problems
- chest pain
- enlarged spleen
- abdominal pain and swelling
When do you seek medical care?
Call your healthcare provider right away if you develop symptoms that indicate Hodgkin lymphoma or if you experience side effects from treatment.
How do doctors diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma?
A health care provider may make the diagnosis through a physical examination and symptom record. They also order other tests to confirm their suspicions. Here is the test:
- Blood test: A blood test and erythrocyte sedimentation rate test will be completed to check red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet, lactate, dehydrogenase, and uric acid levels.
- Imaging test: These tests include x-rays, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound, and PET scan. These tests help doctors find cancer in other parts of the body.
- lymph node biopsy: Some of the lymph nodes are removed with a needle. Your health care provider will check the signs, type, and severity of your cancer to find the best possible treatment options.
- Bone marrow biopsy: A doctor inserts a needle into the hip bone to take a sample of bone marrow. A sample is analyzed to look for Hodgkin lymphoma cancer cells.
- lung and heart function tests: Determines whether the heart and lungs are working efficiently.
- Virus test: Your healthcare provider may perform tests that show the virus, such as: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis Cor HIV.
What are the different treatment options for Hodgkin lymphoma?
This treatment aims to kill cancer cells completely or keep them from growing too quickly. Below are various treatment options.
- chemical treatment: In this case, doctors may use one or more drugs to kill cancer cells or prevent cancer cells from growing. These drugs are given intravenously or orally.
- radiotherapy: This is another cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-ray beams or other forms of radiation to kill cells or keep them from growing. It may be given after chemotherapy or alone.
- immunotherapy: Also known as biological therapy or biotherapy. Here, doctors offer key inhibitors to boost your immune system.
- Targeted therapy: Here, drugs, such as antibody-drug conjugates, are administered to target and attack cancer cells. These drugs were created in a lab to find and destroy Reed-Sternberg cells.
- Bone marrow transplantation It is an option when chemotherapy or radiation therapy is ineffective. Here, doctors inject healthy cells, known as stem cells, into the body. These stem cells replace cancer cells in the bone marrow.
Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare blood cancer that affects the lymph nodes. However, as medicine advances, new drugs are appearing to help eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing. Studies have also shown that nearly 90% of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma patients recover from the disease. The earlier the cancer is found, the better the prognosis.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Is Hodgkin’s lymphoma preventable?
Unfortunately, it is not possible to prevent the onset of the disease because there are no known triggers for the genetic mutations that lead to the disease.
What are the stages of Hodgkin’s lymphoma?
There are 4 stages and they are:
- Stage 1: Cancer cells stay in some lymph nodes
- Stage 2: Affects two or more lymph nodes on the same side of the diaphragm
- Stage 3: Cancer cells are on either side of the diaphragm and may have spread to the spleen.
- Stage 4: Cancer cells are in one of the body’s other organs that are not part of the lymph node system.
https://healthlibrary.askapollo.com/hodgkins-lymphoma-disease-causes-symptoms-and-treatment/ Hodgkin Lymphoma Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment